Despite a sufficient flow of energy, the surroundings of supermassive black holes — too rough and dangerous place for the existence of life on close planets.
The movie “interstellar” is known to the accuracy with which the screen reproduced many astronomical objects. Its plot is built around searches potentially inhabiting planets orbiting a supermassive black hole, shown with great accuracy. However, the question of whether life on such planets is still open. Look Jeremy Schnittman (Jeremy Schnittman) from the Massachusetts Institute of technology (MIT), reports the online edition of the Chronicle.info with reference to naked-science.ru.
A key condition for the existence of life in the known forms is the presence of liquid water is a major environment and of solvent required for the occurrence of biochemical reactions. It requires a stable, moderate temperature of the planet, which in turn needs a constant influx of energy. It may do as from the depths of the celestial bodies, and from the outside — from the parent star or, as in “Interstellar”, from the black hole and its environs. These variants have studied Sznitman in a paper presented in the online library of preprints arXiv.org.
Accretion disks of matter falling into the depths of supermassive black holes, emit extremely bright in ultraviolet and other ranges, adverse life. However, if the intensity of absorption of a substance hole is small, radiation can be relatively moderate. At a sufficient distance from the center according to the calculations of Sznitman, at a distance of more than 100 of its radius — the temperature in the accretion matter falls to “room” level.
Theoretically, here the planet will be evenly warm. On the other hand, the scientist notes that life requires not just energy, but the energy gradient, continuous flow, and such a comprehensive warm up may not be as appropriate as a one-sided irradiation by the star. Furthermore, the absorption of matter by the black hole leads to the weakening of the radiation of the accretion disk. It also reduces the chances of the emergence here suitable for living conditions.
Jeremy Schnittman consider another hypothetical source of energy: cosmic background radiation — a faint microwave background, the echo of the Big Bang that permeates the entire Universe. Its average temperature of only 2.7 Kelvin, but in the immediate vicinity of a supermassive black hole, where space-time is strongly deformed, relict background of experiences a blue shift in more energy and warm region of the spectrum. Scientists have calculated that close to the edge of a black hole its temperature reaches the desired temperature, although the level of radiation here, of course, rolls and potentially harmful to all living things.
Finally, the flow of energy can provide light of distant stars. Unlike the Sun, located on the edge of the Galaxy, the supermassive black holes sitting in their very centers, where the density of star population is much higher and “night” sky in hundreds of thousands of times brighter than ours. Extra heating can provide a powerful flow of neutrinos coming from the vicinity of the black hole and penetrating neighboring planet through. Rare particles, interacting with the substance of the subsoil, can also create the desired heat.
Scientists have predicted extreme heat gain
All this does not negate the main disadvantages of the environs of supermassive black holes from the point of view of life: a very violent, unstable environment and hard streams of radiation. Finally, the powerful gravitational waves, created by regular catastrophic events, should create conditions, it is unbearable for life. Apparently, in this matter, “interstellar” is not so reliable.